For that it was necessary to remove the soiled deposits, encrustations, and corrosion layers covering these coins. To succeed in developing and establishing conservation processes for these coins, various tests were performed on the coins to assess their statement and condition. XRD analysis was used to characterize the coins. Various selected cleaning processes that were suggested to remove the soiled deposits, encrustations, and corrosion layer covering these coins were tested. Mechanical cleaning, alkaline Rochelle salt, alkaline dithionite reduction technique, and electrolytic reduction techniques were tested. To evaluate the suggested cleaning processes used in this study, the coins before, while, and after the cleaning processes were investigated by various methods.

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What motivated Yemeni theater practitioners to put their lives and limbs at risk to perform, and Yemeni audience members, to attend? What connections exist between the form and content of plays performed before, during, and after and the changes being wrought that year in Yemeni society? This article proposes that these plays reflect two larger existential trends in Yemeni society between and the growing awareness of the dire necessity of revolutionary change, and the progression from hope and aspiration to frustration and despair which has accompanied that awareness.

Revolution is, after all, a slippery concept. The images that the word conjures up are, in general, violent and militaristic ones, whether the revolution in question is French, American, Latin American, or Bolshevik.

Yet we can also use the term to describe less gory upheavals, transformations in the way large groups of human beings understand, live, and act in the world around them: revolutions can be industrial, sexual, or Copernican.

Most of these plays represent in simplistic and propagandistic fashion the winning side as courageous heroes selflessly dedicated to liberating their nation from the shackles of an evil and tyrannical regime. Certain of these dramatic works were presented so directly as to be flat and superficial, overly simplistic in terms of content and artistic form.

This was a real disservice, since these plays were trying to portray one of the richest periods in Yemeni history, a period of revolutionary transformation and social, economic, and political change.

The hero is a revolutionary who educates the peasantry with fiery speeches about justice and equality, and urges them to rise up and cast off the shackles of their tyrannical oppressor.

The peasant was always presented in the same ossified mold, the revolutionary likewise. Caldwell, for more on Davis. Subsequent decades, however, were not as kind to the genre: with the professionalization of theater from the s through the s, in particular the predominance of national theater troupes attached to government ministries, came a level of expectation that performances would celebrate, directly or indirectly, the achievements of the regimes in power, rather than praising those who rebel against authority.

Rather than depicting activists, politicians, generals, or demonstrations, Yemeni playwrights and directors are meditating upon the events of the Arab Spring within the framework of uncommon genres like science fiction and fantasy, and utilizing avant-garde and experimental dramatic techniques.

They are also expanding the definition of the concept of revolution, which on the contemporary Yemeni stage is not merely an uprising against a particular political regime, but rather a sweeping indictment of all facets—law, economy, family, society, etc.

An elegantly dressed middle-aged man enters, strolling proudly past the other customers to his seat. When his uncle dies, the boy is rescued from the Kenyan streets by a Lebanese Maronite family, who adopt him and provide him with stability, education, wealth, and the experience of travel throughout the world. If spaces here change, it is inevitably for the worse.

And the axiomatic reward for committing such crimes is being admired as a good citizen. In the darkness, the audience hears the sound of wolves howling.

The play concludes as follows: 23 Ibid. Red and purple lights. Sounds of screams and weeping. The play thus illustrates both the absolute necessity of a complete societal transformation, and an utter lack of belief that such a transformation will ever take place.

This does occasional It illustrates both the desperate need for change and a pessimistic conviction that no change, except for the worse, is possible. She dismisses the previous dialogue: none of the three is innocent. Look at it! Look at the truth! Forget tests! Education is for boys!

Some may heal, but the worst never will. She kneels silently center stage, head bowed in shame, for the entire scene. Around her, her parents weep and rail at fate and each other.

I see them every day, coming out of my bedroom! She pours some on herself, then splashes her husband and parents with the remainder. Powerless to improve her lot, she responds with an act of self-destruction. This character is prepared to set ablaze everything and everyone that has contributed to her misery. Her ultimate inability to achieve this is an additional trauma, one rooted in part in the psychological trauma of her rape: the lies, too, are a form of violation which she is powerless to prevent, and ultimately they feed a dangerous appetite for destruction of self and others.

Some may have perceived in it a desire to transform Yemeni society not merely at the upper echelons of power but down to its very building blocks, the family and the individual. The most politically astute may also have sensed an underlying warning. Otherwise Yemeni society risks a violent series of rifts and reckonings. In , the warning was prescient; today, it still rings ominously true. The two sate themselves on gorgeously described but non-existent morsels, then inebriate themselves on invisible wine.

But as weeks pass and his caravan does not appear, those he has tricked threaten to kill him. The only tools at his disposal are vision and rhetoric. Yet, as the play insists, the ability to envision an alternative reality is the crucial first step towards bringing it to fruition. Prosperity which can be seen and touched. My thanks to Dr. El-Enany for his reflections on an early draft of this art Whether their dominance over the poorer classes has been definitively broken is an open question.

One particular visual image suggested how much fortitude and self-sacrifice would be required of the protesters to sustain their revolution.

Although in the Islamic world the image of crucifixion can call to mind multiple images and historical moments, 33 it is undoubtedly an image of agony, suffering, and humiliation at the hands of a vengeful and omnipotent force; to its audience it may well have recalled the violence that protesters had endured at the hands of security forces and plain-clothed thugs.

Work, for through work we can build everything. Carried away by these jubilant expectations, he hurriedly signs his contract, not bothering to read it. The strange car transforms into a spaceship, and whisks him away to his new home.

He is assigned a simple car and basic accommodation, and though his imagination had conjured a horde of servants waiting on his every whim, he finds to his chagrin that he will be expected to cook and clean for himself, and even to make his own tea.

When he vigorously protests that he is the president, the delegation points out that every aspect of the job and the remuneration is laid out in the contract that he signed. But he soon causes an interplanetary incident when he slaps his driver for refusing to carry out his orders to exceed the speed limit. During one of their chats, the protagonist suddenly finds himself unable to respond or to move; after a few disoriented moments, he suddenly wakes to find himself in his own home, in front of the television, which is running a sci-fi film about aliens invading earth.

The whole experience has been nothing more than a vivid dream, inspired by the film. The important thing, he stresses in conclusion, is that he will tolerate no dissent. The protagonist is thus simultaneously returned to reality and to his lack of status, influence, and power within the Yemeni social hierarchy. The audience is left to speculate whether his elation upon waking will fade to nostalgia for the order, discipline, and equal treatment under the law that his dream-vision showed him.

Even when surrounded by a just and honest populace, the protagonist persists in his desire to bend the rules in his favor, and simply refuses to conceive that a leader can be anything other than covetous and self-serving. He is, in fact, the personification of all those members of the previous regime whom the Yemeni revolution has thus far proved unable to dislodge.

Though many Yemenis had grown more aware of and more vocal about the need for socio-political change, by early , despite the presidential succession, the essential structures of power in Yemen remained very much as they were two years earlier. Conclusion 63Throughout its long history Yemeni theater has repeatedly reflected, critiqued, and challenged unjust and retrograde social and political hierarchies. From its inception, stirring calls for revolt against injustice, stagnation, and corruption have resounded from the Yemeni stage.

Others have called for sweeping changes throughout Yemeni society, targeting underlying systems and attitudes that encourage inequality and discrimination or that obstruct progress and personal liberty.


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